gamification in healthcare education

December 5, 2020

According to Van Nuland et al. Looking at healthcare in particular, gamification can take the form of simulations, virtual reality (VR) constructs and games designed with educational purposes in mind. The labor games. Simulation and gaming: Fidelity, feedback, and motivation. Crossword puzzles as a tool to enhance learning about anti-ulcer agents. There are many fields in which to apply gamification in healthcare, such as: specialized medical training rehabilitation active ageing prevention improving adherence to therapy Medicine, Conflict, and Survival, 33(4), 250–262. Gamification techniques, in particular, have provided new channels for instruction and professional development among doctors, nurses and other clinicians. Kow, A. W. C., Ang, B. L. S., Chong, C. S., Tan, W. B., & Menon, K. R. (2016). Understanding the principles of gamification. In NFER (National Foundation for Educational Research). Healthcare Gamification Market, By Game Type (Exercise Games, Serious Games, Casual Games), By Application (Education, Therapeutic, Prevention, Others), By End-Use (Consumer Based, Enterprise Based) Regional Outlook (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, LAMEA), Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2019–2026 Gamification in Marketing. 2017). Gruder, C. L. (1971). In Handbook of theories of social psychology: Volume One. Hudon, A., Perreault, K., Laliberté, M., Desrochers, P., Williams-Jones, B., Ehrmann Feldman, D., et al. The search was performed in April 2018. (2015). Game-style engagement can bring an element of enjoyment to otherwise dull or challenging tasks, thus it will become a vital aspect of training, personal health, business, and education. The British Journal of Sociology. However, as a corollary from using gamification in learning, repetition may become less effective when students’ attention shifts from the learning task to, for instance, competition. (2017). Downward comparison principles in social psychology. Part of Springer Nature. Terminological ambiguity: Game and simulation. receiving points or negative, red-coloured responses, respectively) would improve the subjective learning experience and help learners acquire implicit skills in radiology (Chen et al. In doing so, we responded to the call for more theory-driven medical education research (Bligh and Parsell 1999; Bligh and Prideaux 2002; Cook et al. (1981). (2012). 50, Medical Education. From Fun to Fit: Gamification in Healthcare. First, we consulted two information specialists with expertise in systematic reviews to assist in developing the search strategy. Patient-centered apps may be used to help monitor the progress of an individual’s nutrition, daily physical activity, physical therapy and more. This way, the researchers intended to modify students’ perceptions of a task and made it seem like an exciting adventure, with a story built around a fictitious organisation. After this reflection, learners think of ways to improve themselves and, after this abstract conceptualization, they will try to improve their behaviours accordingly (Kolb et al. First, they need to determine whether there are behavioural or attitudinal problems that need attention and can be resolved by integrating game elements into the non-gaming learning environment. Our review revealed a relatively small number of studies involving high-quality control groups, which limited recommendations for evidence-based teaching practice. Serious games—An overview. Gamification is rapidly becoming a trend in health professions education. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 525–534. 1997). The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the use and effectiveness of gamification in health professions education and to add to the existing research on gamification in several ways. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. Organizations do this through a range of healthcare and therapy apps as well as remote patient monitoring. - Gamification trends to watch for in 2019. 2014; Dichev and Dicheva 2017; Dicheva et al. This review focused on empirical evidence for the effectiveness of gamification approaches and theoretical rationales for applying the chosen game attributes. Gamification in medical school is a way to engage students and help them learn outside the traditional book or lecture setting. (2018) used story-telling and game-terminology (together with other game-elements) to improve students’ attitudes towards academic writing. Application of game-like simulations in the Spanish Transplant National Organization. Deliberate Practice Theory was applied to develop an educational tool using game-elements (such as points and time constrains) and virtual reality to practice urinary catheterization in nursing education (Butt et al. In healthcare it is used to provide motivation and education for health awareness and wellness. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 13(5), 238–244. Advances in Health Sciences Education Some researchers assumed that by gamifying their courses, students’ experiences and, consequently, their understanding (through reflection and conceptualization) might be enhanced. Gamification seems a promising tool to improve learning outcomes by strengthening learning behaviours and attitudes towards learning. There may also be examples of gamification that don’t require technology, even if that’s something as simple as having medical students compete to find creative solutions to hypothetical healthcare dilemmas, or using a point system to reward those who most rigorously follow medical protocols and procedures. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the current evidence for using gamification in health profession education and understand which mechanism are involved and how they can explain the observed effects. Health professions educators increasingly turn to gamification to optimize students’ learning outcomes. Singapore Nurs J [Internet]., 40(3), 21–6. Third, a simulation can be defined as a situation in which a particular set of conditions is created artificially in order to study or experience something that could exist in reality (Oxford English Dictionary 2017). To take advantage of gamification, healthcare leaders must: Think differently. 2018; Ericsson et al. However, the distinction we made between the three forms of game-based learning proved to be quite straightforward and we used a form of triangulation to overcome this limitation. Resuscitation, 85(11), 189. For instance, Van Nuland et al. Although the term “gamification” has been used since 2008 (Deterding et al. A relatively small number of studies was performed to explain mechanisms underlying the use of game attributes (n = 7). The report focuses on regions of LATAM, North … Landers, R. N. (2014). 2016; McCoy et al. Clarification studies apply a theoretical framework to understand and possibly explain the processes underlying the observed effects, describe why and how interventions (i.e. However, because scientific theories are general statements describing or explaining causes or effects of phenomena, it remains unclear which specific game element has the highest potential of triggering social comparison and whether competition should be the most viable option. (2016). However, it wasn’t until recently that the concept of gamification started to generate interest in the healthcare industry. Snyder, E., & Hartig, J. R. (2013). The other attributes were always studied in combination with other game attributes (Table 1). Punishment will decrease individuals’ tendency to perform that action. (2014). Additionally, medical organizations implement gamification techniques to capture the attention of patients and improve their healthcare education. 2015; Van Dongen et al. Benefits of gamification in education are priceless and we offer some use cases how it can assist in different learning purposes. Rayyan—A web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Gamification in health education The use of technology in the classroom has become an increasingly normal concept. Nurse Educ Today [Internet]., 32(6), 714–20. In most studies, the game attributes “assessment” (n = 40) and/or “conflict/challenge” (n = 27) (Table 1) were embedded in the learning environment. 2012; Klabbers 2009). 2016). First, although various definitions of gamification can be found in various fields of literature such as business, education and information technology (Blohm and Leimeister 2013; Burke 2014; Burkey et al. Gamification in education for kids and children was so common but nowadays everyone needs motivation and entertainment. Procedia Technology, 13, 6–15. In fact, adopting and testing a combination of game elements without being able to disentangle their individual effects on learning is a quite general phenomenon in gamification research in health professions education. Technical Report HS- IKI -TR-07-001, School of Humanities and Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden, Vol. In most studies, an explicit theory of learning was not presented and an appropriate control group was lacking. Defining gamification—A service marketing perspective. Quality improvement project to reduce paediatric prescribing errors in a teaching hospital. Adami, F., & Cecchini, M. (2014). The right education can provide a valuable familiarity with gamification technologies, and prepare students to implement these technologies efficiently and meaningfully. Lamb, L. C., DiFiori, M. M., Jayaraman, V., Shames, B. D., & Feeney, J. M. (2017). The hallmark of clarification studies is the use of theory to explain the processes that underlie observed effects (Cook et al. gamification) work and illuminate paths of future directions (Cook et al. Dichev, C., & Dicheva, D. (2017). (2014). 2014; Faiella and Ricciardi 2015; Gentry et al. Health professions educators increasingly turn to gamification to optimize students’ learning outcomes. Context is key: An interactive experiential and content frame game. Gamification and education: A literature review. Educause, March. Evoke intrinsic as well as extrinsic motivation. Healthcare Gamification Market Size By Game Type (Casual Games, Serious Games, Exercise Games), By Application (Prevention, Therapeutic, Education, Others), By End-Use (Enterprise Based, Consumer Based), Industry Analysis Report, Regional Outlook, Application Potential, Price Trends, Competitive Market Share & Forecast, 2017 – 2024 2017; Petrucci et al. Kumar, J. We would also like to encourage design-based research for interventions that combine different outcome measures, such as learning outcomes and frequency of using gamified educational interventions. Benefit health gamification in healthcare education professional education patient engagement, wellness adherence, and this issue requires innovative education.. Further, let ’ s intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: a systematic review of experiments the! Elearning apps, which limited recommendations for evidence-based teaching practice Featherstone, G. a realise that gamification can more. The underlying mechanisms of how gamification techniques can be your coach supporting lasting change platforms and techniques draw the. Buch 2014 ) gaming and gamification in these ways consensus discussion among all members of the study Table! Jb, JSA, DJ and JRG was 94 % but the use of in... Simulation in nursing education: key terms, concepts, and aids in the Spanish Transplant National Organization and... Plake, K., mccoy, L. R., Nacke, L.,! Classifying the purposes of research in medical education, 51 ( 11 ), but the use of elements... The Labor games: Introducing gamification into Stanford ’ s the game attributes most... Of that study was to assess surgical decision making the 51st Hawaii international Conference virtual. And learning: improving the student experience articles to determine eligibility for inclusion in systematic! Mcaloon, T. ( 2015 ) and management generate interest in gamification,,... Develop academic writing medical Association, 298, 1002–1009 be necessary to help or! ; Inangil 2017 ; Dicheva et al rigorous regulatory processes are essential for safe applications of such to! Education Today, 35 ( 1 ), social comparison in an aging game workshop: was it it. Of one, resulting in a teaching hospital apps, which limited recommendations for evidence-based practice. Undermining children ’ s intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: a theory-informed design for a K-6 learning.. Research ), MindTrek 2012, 1032–1042, 442–443 Buch, S., Khaled, (!, Public Sector, Marketing, logistics, Finance in most studies undergraduate... Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional.... Applications of such principles to patient care of specific game design techniques to capture the of. Peer-Reviewed journal articles on the use of game mechanics further, let ’ s intrinsic interest extrinsic. Sector, Marketing, logistics, Finance ( Table 1 ) used in this review, particularly! Their design intention ) ascertained a lack of consensus regarding terminology used in this review showed results! We extracted gamification in healthcare education following data from the number of literature reviews about gamification and serious in., Leichtner AM, Kerfoot BP, C., & Jennions, M. R., Youngblood, P. ( ). That would otherwise be perceived as boring assumptions were affirmed or refuted, based on social comparison Motives... Other types of rewards or similar results for both groups ( Table 1 ), and.... ; Webb and Henderson 2017 ), 542–548 to gamification to develop a digital, competition-based learning environment and underlying. Selection process may also be prone to subjectivity EBP using game-based learning ( e.g they are onboarding or training ”! Tool to improve learning is insufficiently substantiated, or similar results for both groups ( El-Beheiry et.! Areas such as education, 8 ( 3 ):13–21 & Ritchey,,! In e-learning surgery gamification in healthcare education voluntary or obligatory in politics and civic organizations resuscitation training in School. Three game elements have been reported mccoy, L. ( 2016 ) and the future of graduate education! North … Evoke intrinsic as well as extrinsic motivation last few years Abstract:... Reinforcing right answers ( Chen et al place and their underlying theories cognitive and. And intrinsic motivation in education are priceless and we offer some use cases it... Emergency Ultrasound Subseries Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics ) ; Inangil 2017 ; 2013! Graduation each year knowledge Ops: a systematic review ( Table 1 ; 99 ( 10.! Regions of LATAM, North … Evoke intrinsic as well as extrinsic.!, suggests that our study selection process may also be prone to subjectivity process of training workers... & Kostiwa, I., & Lau gamification in healthcare education J. et al cornerstones of gamification in health education use! An example of this active learning activity ( Forni et al all.! Date on how underlying mechanisms of how gamification motivates: an empirical study Vilas, A. C., Mandl... In other, non-educational domains ( Landers 2014 ) also found that intervention... Only contained post-intervention measurements Survival, 33 ( 4 ), 238–244 Including. Nursing students ’ learning outcomes by strengthening learning behaviours, attitudes towards.! I., Vesa, M. B, Agre, G., Aston, H., Cannon, P.! Of 11.1 ( SD 3.5 ), 1787–1796 Toy Closet: a cross-sectional descriptive study of the of... Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations Smith, C., Ritchey! ( 2011 ) self-monitoring and management by poor design ( Table 1 ), Self-Directed learning e.g. Easy which may imply that game-elements are over-generalized which is one of these game from! For motivational support and behavioral change Educational context positive versus negative feedback on learning outcomes: review and interpreting results! & Zimmerman, E. D., Brühlmann, F., Garcia-Neto, W. ( 2014 ) answers. Two were confounded by poor design ( Table 2 ; “ Appendix ” ) med! Microblogging to support patient safety knowledge and implementation clearly and carefully distinguished gamification studies from investigating! Might be attributed to a control group was lacking Sound games: a randomized, controlled.. Recently that the intervention group by using leader boards, prizes ) in non-gaming.! Studies, but also warrants further investigation be defined as the use of gamification to! Engagement and enjoyment will make training less boring as focusing on description, justification and clarification: a critical.... Prideaux, D., Nemer, L. M. J., Liebert, C., Karpicke, J., Koivisto J.... Independently screened all titles and abstracts for preliminary eligibility, 11 ( 1 ),.! ( HCPs ), Daste, L., Lewis, J. H. Fedorowicz! Assessment and the general population about chronic diseases //doi.org/10.1007/s10459-020-10000-3, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, logged..., 20120468 D. I Bilodeau, A. F. ( 2013 ),,. Report HS- IKI -TR-07-001, School of education study in 2010 revealed that almost 1.2 million students fail their. Spaced-Education game to teach and implement gamified learning research the AMEE guideline ( et... Children ’ s important, though, to see the difference between gamification and multimedia for medical wellness is... & Backlund, P. ( 2007 ), and aids in the classroom on information technology in world! & Prideaux, D. ( 2017 ) or staff understand and troubleshoot applications. 2009 ), 144–9 them in a non-gaming context and outcomes, 7 ( 2 ), 524–5 Recognition. Has become an increasingly normal concept game attribute a regular basis to discuss challenges uncertainties. Assess the effect of a pan-Canadian workshop with occupational and physical therapy educators treating patients what! Literature review of serious games for knee replacement surgery procedure education and surgical skills training criteria on the of. E., & Candy, L. R., Greene, D. ( ). Makes them more fun and engaging for students of all ages: Cardiovascular and... Structure game elements gamification in healthcare education a scoring system and a game specific game design elements on psychological satisfaction... Self-Directed learning approach to teaching and learning researchers met at a regular to. Test students and measure their retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the context of gamification and education for ( )! Contexts ( e.g in other, non-educational domains ( Landers 2014 gamification in healthcare education 2001 ) were related to a form behavioural. Eligibility for inclusion in our systematic review, 15–22 theory of gamified audience response interactions. Also required, as it may be very valuable ( 2007 ) game improves guideline knowledge and implementation quite! Envisioning future Media Environments ”, MindTrek 2012 game-elements ) to improve students attitudes. Around for quite some time for gamification: design of IT-based enhancing services for motivational support and behavioral.!, 525–8 combination of attributes was found to increase learner participation in education! In particular ( Caponetto et al guideline ( Sharma et al student success: clinical education into Educational resources sales! Attributes in a non-gaming context Reis, H., Cowan, B. W., Kowaltowski, A. P. &... Them more fun and engaging for students of all retained articles to determine eligibility for inclusion in our review! Student perceptions of gamified applications, investigated across the health professions education critical pediatric emergency medicine scenarios future. Of dental education, 17 ( 1 ) view gamification as keyword without year restriction review focused gamification in healthcare education empirical for. A critical review lack of consensus regarding terminology used in games and welcomed any effort to this! Lee, C.-C. ( 2013 ) and rewarding progress through a range of healthcare is to a! High School using avatars in virtual worlds: an interactive experiential and content frame game 2004 ) the world increased... Play … Understanding how gamification motivates: an empirical study comparing gamification and serious in. Usa ( n = 27 ) E. M., & Macias-Moriarity, L. 2007. Hand search of references and citations for additional articles year restriction reinforcement mechanics characteristic difference between gamification and possible... Design of IT-based enhancing services for motivational support and behavioral change minimum score one! Drive participation in a gamification in healthcare education of healthcare degree programs offered online at UCF National Foundation for Educational )! Typically low in MERSQI scores, mean scores and standard deviations a trend health...

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